Posted in Professional Practice


Copyright is the right to authorise or restrict the making of copies. It is an author’s right, a property right, a human right and a collection of rights. Copyright doesn’t always sit well with everyone. Through copyright a photographer can protect their work against unauthorised copying and permit or restrict the use of their photographs. They can also get payment for the use of work. There is no system for registering copyright in the UK. Copyright exists automatically from the moment the photograph is created, but only in material form.

Copyrights can be used on a photograph, a sculpture, painting, design, illustration, music, signatures, architecture, film, cartoons, typeface, performance, literature, names, logos, products and more. As demonstrated you can copyright almost anything.

Copyright is protected in the UK under the Copyright Design & Patents Act 1988. This law came into effect on 1st August 1989. The 1956 or 1911 Act will still apply to some older works. Since the 1988 Act, it has been changed a number of times. The most important amendment that has taken place, has affected the duration of copyright for photographers.

The creator of protected work is it’s ‘author’. In photography the author is the person who creates it, the photographer. Photographers have not always owned copyright & these old rules still cause a great deal of confusion. Under 1911 & 1956 Copyright Acts, The commissioner (company or person) owned copyright. ‘The author’ was the person who owned the film. Thankfully this is no longer the case. However some clients still think this old rule applies. Employed photographers don’t hold the copyright of any work produced in the course of their employment. The copyright is owned by the employer. Using equipment that belongs to your employers outside office hours, could still give the employer the copyright. Copyright in a photograph lasts for the life of the photographer plus 70 years.

The ownership of artists work is quite separate to the ownership of materials. If a photographer sells a photograph for a sum of money, the buyer does not own the copyright, with the right to hang the work. The copyright remains with the photographer

Clients need to be aware of the cost difference of a one-off advert compared to the assignment of copyright. The photographer needs to clarify costs before the job commences. You can include key wording, file info, copyright and license, contact details in your metadata.

Copyright Infringement is classified in two different categories. Primary which is when reproducing/ copying takes place without the photographer’s permission, a photograph is used without permission and put onto a t-shirt, or another unlicensed photograph is made into an ‘art’ poster. The other sector is secondary which includes other aspects of trade in the pirated or infringing goods and where the infringing t-shirt and ‘art’ posters are sold from a market stall, even if the market trade did not make them their self. These infringements can be made by commissioners and clients who use the photographs but don’t pay or comply with contractual terms, commissioners and clients who use the photographs outside the terms of the original license or other users who copy photographs without clearing rights.

Duration of Moral Rights Applies to any photographer who was alive on or after the 1st August 1989; irrespective of whether the work was created before or after that date. The Attribution Right is the right to be identified as the author and the right to have name appear alongside photograph. The Integrity Right is the photographer’s right to prevent work being mistreated. Attribution & Integrity Right is for the purpose of reporting current events, publication in a newspaper, magazine or similar. The False Attribution Right belongs to anyone who wrongly has work attributed to them. It can be deliberate where an advertiser want to use a more prestigious photographer, to create value. The Privacy Right applies only to commissions for ‘private and domestic purposes’. That person has the right not to have copies of the work issued to the public, exhibited or shown in public. Most photographers’ are freelance. They are the first owners of copyright. They will have a contract with the client to determine copyright issues

Roger vs. Koons is just one famous example of a copyright infringement. A situation arose when Jeff Koons made a sculpture that was almost identical to the photograph “Puppies” taken by Roger. The photograph was taken for a postcard and clearly showed his copyright of the image. Roger approached Koons about the matter but he denied the case saying that the placement of daisies and dramatic colours meant that it wasn’t a copy. However, Rogers spoke to the sculptures of Koons’ piece who said that Koons had told them to replicate the image “even down to the angle of the collar”. So Rogers took Koons to court where Koons said that his work was only a parody and therefore not an infringement of the photograph. The judge dismissed this as an eligible argument and Koons eventually admitted that he ignored the copyright on the image. As a result, he was made to hand over the remaining un-sold sculptures to Roger and £375,000 compensation. This proves how costly and damaging this is to a business, especially if you are a freelancer.

Posted in Contextual Studies


Portraiture is a genre of photography which has been around for centuries and is still a very broad genre today. It is thought to have originated during the cave years, as the cave paintings of Lascaux are estimated to be 20,000 years old. They were almost seen as ways of making their mark to be remembered and noticed by the future.lascaux4b

The camera obscura later followed this. This was the idea of projecting an image through a lense but it was only ever a one off and it couldn’t be saved. David Hockney researched into this and it led him to conclude that artists such as Caravaggio, Velázquez, da Vinci, and others actually used optics and lenses to create their images. It is believed that Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre were to creators of the negative image, which meant that images could be saved a printed many times.

The portrait in the 19th Century was the most photographed subject. This was due to the economic growth driven by the Industrial revolution. This later saw studios opened throughout Europe.

Felix Nadar was one of the most renowned portrait photographers of this time. His Parisian studio was a meeting place for intellectuals and artists of that time. Nadar photographed many celebrities including Charles Baudelaire and Jules Verne Sarah Bernhardt.

A more popular and affordable form of portrait photography became the Carte de Visite. This was a small photograph of only 2.5 x 4 inches in size and was usually existent within families. They represented a form of social status, and sometimes were used as business cards. The photographers would use braces to hold the model in place to give the upper class stance of the model.

Also in the 19th Century evolved the genre of Post Mortem photography. susanseattle.0The practice of photographing a deceased loved one as a way of remembering them was common. More modernly, photographer Annie Leibovitz photographed almost a documentary of her life with girlfriend Susan Sontag, including her death from cancer and Susan’s body returning home.

There were many famous photographers during this era. Julia Margaret Cameron was known for her painterly portraits of people. Man Ray was also well recognised but was accused of objectifying women. This is 726.jpgarguably why he is so well known, as he caused controversy, particularly with images such as Le Violon d’Ingres, which was a woman photographed to look like a musical instrument.

According to Clarke, 1997, pp 101-2, ‘character revelation’ is the essence of good portraiture. Edward Steichen said “A portrait is not made in the camera but on either side of it.” He created an image of Fred Astaire, a famous dancer and musician during the 20th century. By transforming Astaire’s signature top hat into a recurring motif, Steichen was able to visually represent Astaire’s style, sophistication and personality to the audience.

Another famous portrait photographer was Yousuf Karsh 1908 – 2002. He said that “Within every man and woman a secret is hidden, and as a photographer it is my task to reveal it if I can. “ One of his most famous images was of Winston Churchill which became a viral image. He captured the body language to show the strong powerful personality of the prime yousuf_karsh_01minister. He did this purely by accident by taking Churchill’s cigar, but this proves that photography is sometimes a case of pot luck and timing. Another famous image he photographed was of Helen Keller with Polly Thompson. Helen Keller was a blind and deaf lady from the age of 3 and Karsh was emotionally touched by the experience of photographing her and her companion.

Karsh introduced Herman Leonard to his photography career in 1947 when Leonard worked as his apprentice. Leonard is another renowned portrait photographer. Herman Leonard’s love of jazz started at an early age, when he borrowed a camera from his brother and started hanging out in the jazz clubs in New York City. It was in the clubs that Leonard perfected his backlit. Leonard has said his aim was “to create a visual diary of what he heard, to make people see the way the music sounded”. Leonard formed relationships with many of the musicians he photographed and remained lifelong friends with some. His famous quote about photography is that LSY03“you judge a photographer not by what he shot but by what he shows you”. At times he didn’t even photograph people, but photographed objects famously associated with that person to reveal their personality – a different turn on portraiture.

Irving Penn was another photographer who used lines within his portraiture to direct the audience to the subject.

Richard Avedon was fascinated by photography’s ability to suggest the personality and evoke the life of his subjects. He registered poses, attitudes, hairstyles, clothing and accessories as vital elements of an image to do this. He had complete confidence in the two-dimensional nature of photography – he stated that his photographs “don’t go below the surface”, as he believes surfaces are “full of clues.” Within the minimalism of his empty studio, Avedon’s subjects move freely, and it is this movement which makes his images different as the models are able to do what they wish to show their personality.

Queen Elizabeth is one of the most photographed people in the world however she is always depicted differently. Some people she has been photographed by include Dorothy Wilding, Annie Leibovitz, Cecil Beaton, Rankin, Rolf Harris, and David Bailey. Rankin said “It’s so hard to talk about the Queen because everyone has such preconceived notions of what she’s like as a person. The day I was at the palace to shoot her, I saw her walking down a really long corridor with a really tall footman. They were laughing and I thought that’s exactly what I wanted her to be like.” The image created by Rolf Harris is mysteriously unclaimed. Since the recent events of the life of Harris, this may be a factor why no one wishes to claim the art, however one day it could be worth big money. David Bailey most recently said “I’ve always been a huge fan of the Queen. She has very kind eyes with a mischievous glint. I’ve always liked strong women and she is a very strong woman.”

In the modern day celebrity portraiture is very popular as it is able to sell a lifestyle which people aspire to have of luxury and fame. Tom Oldham is a famous photographer who specialises in this area of photography.

However, portraiture isn’t always about selling a lifestyle that the audience aspires to have. Photographer Nan Goldin released a collection called Ballad of Sexual Dependency, a visual diary showing the struggle for intimacy and understanding between friends, family, and lovers. She shoots with honesty – nothing in her photographs is ever arranged or moved to make a better composition, nor does she fabricate anything. She doesn’t shy away from any subject, even when it comes to herself. Some of her most famous and most graphic images are her self-portraits. She has taken photographs of herself in rehab, her self-inflicted cigarette burns, and her face after being beaten by her then-boyfriend, Brian. She shot her friends in hospices, at funerals, and in caskets. She also began taking photographs of children trying to celebrate the joy children have in just being alive. While her earlier work was about our desire to find closeness with someone else and the difficulties in relationships, the newer work became about people’s internal lives and real intimacy. Her work demonstrates the reality for most people and doesn’t strive to make the audience want more from their lives.“For me it is not a detachment to take a picture. It’s a way of touching somebody – it’s a caress… I think that you can actually give people access to their own soul.”

Posted in Professional Practice

Dom Moore

Dom Moore is an ex student of PCA who visited us to talk about his career within photography and he got to where he is today.

Moore started off using a Lomo LC-A 35mm camera which he was given by his uncle. It is an analogue camera which he used to create LO-FI style images and cross processed to get over exaggerated colours. He also used this to make double exposures.

He then progressed onto a Holga 120 medium format camera which he used to create long exposures and again multiple exposures.

From his processes he made a large impact on the lomography society and made his way to the Lomography world congress.

His education was quite rocky, and college was his first SLR experience as he has always preferred film. Whilst studying, he won live briefs and found different styles that he enjoyed. He discovered the Hasselblad and enjoyed the work of Richard Renaldi. In 2009, he came 3rd place in the Fujifilm distinction awards.

To gain experience he advertised himself on Gumtree to gain work in his spare time. From this he did a job for the Shekinah Mission. He also worked with Fotonow CIC with the camera obscura which widely increased his portfolio. He shot for becky Dodman Knitwear, Greenman festival, Shaolin school UK, and Stonehouse Action which is known as the Unin Street party. His biggest job was the one he did for BBROOTS, which included making a mosaic out of images for their wall.

In the present day he focuses on portrait, weddings, music, fashion and commission photography. He said he enjoys the variety as he means he does something new everyday. I really enjoyed his work as he was able to recreate the style he used in film in digital photography to create the vibrant colourful images he owns. I also love the textures he uses in his images which makes them stand out and almost feel like you are in the image with the subject. He captures moments which you could easily miss which makes them so special to have.

Posted in Contextual Studies

Reading an article task

This particular article appeared in a book about representation, under the chapter of image and representation. The article is about the representation of women within two movies of which the women are police, which is essentially a masculine job. I feel the article is aimed at a wide variety of people, particularly students as it seems the purpose of this article is to answer a question for an essay – almost like an analysis of representation in itself – which could be used as an example to teach students. As this article appeared in a book about representation, it was easy to discover the article and work out what it was about. The article is easy to understand as its very to the point and sets the theme of the article throughout. The article uses complex sentences that add a rhythm to the text which essentially keeps the reader involved in the text, and uses a lot of adjectives making it quite academic. Ultimately the analysis concludes that the woman “becomes a tool of men”, which objectifies the woman and suggests that the film being analysed doesn’t represent women in the correct manner.

[Nick Lacey (1998). Image and Representation: Key Concepts in Media Studies. London: Macmillan Press LTD. 169-171.]

Posted in Professional Practice

Tony Cobley

Visiting photographer Tony Cobley came to tell us about his work. He was extremely friendly and gave some great advice to us about photography as he was also a student from PCA, starting a career within the commercial world.

A bit of background information – he has been photographing since he was 12 as a hobby photographer, and decided when he was in his 30’s to go back to college to pursue a career within the genre. He started up his business in April 2005 whilst studying at PCA.

PSP_July9th2015-47-386x484Some of his student projects included landscapes and structures which were criticised as being too “safe and pretty”, so he tried a new style photographing the seaside and euro travel to make things look horrible and expose the ugliness of the scenes instead. He told us how photography is about “learning to see” which is useful in a sense of being able to find things that no one has found before. There was also a technique he called “stealthy people shots” which consisted of the subject not being able to tell you are photographing them by hiding or moving the camera around after the shot – another clever technique to avoid model release forms and capturing natural shots.

He took part in some work based learning while studying which included assisting Trevor Berrows for commercial photography, Venture for portraits, South West Screen for location and property, freelance work for PCA and his freelance work to start his business.

When starting his business, Cobley specialised in family portraits and weddings, however he gave up the CoachHouse_Aug2015-34weddings as it was too many hours with his weekday commercial work as well. His plan was to go into commercial and marketing photography and to get a BIPP associateship, which he did successfully. He described commercial photography as “understanding the brand, promoting the organisation or establishing the brand”.

751-NickBaker_Sept2014-38-364x484In the present day, Cobley photographs many different things: portraits, events, lifestyle, interiors, healthcare, tourism, medical and scientific things, and products on location. My favourite pieces of his work were his beds on location as it was such a unique and different idea, and the outcomes were really successful. He said it was important to know things about your clients to make it easier to interact with them and make sureThriveOceanCres_Oct2015-98-2-423x484 that you get the right shots – for example, he photographed a famous chef who has a prosthetic hand. The chef doesn’t like his prosthetic hand being shown in photographs so this was something Cobley had to consider when shooting. He also explained that he tries to keep his photos real – which is essential in commercial photography to make sure you are exploiting the truth to the audience.

RogerCharlesMeavy-35-725x484Alongside his professional work, Cobley still partakes in personal shoots which include buildings, documentary, seaside landscapes, structures, silhouettes and general landscapes. He also offers assisting opportunities which I am interested in looking into further to try and get experience of the commercial world and a standard working day for photographers such as Cobley. He was really energetic and fun which RogerCharlesMeavy-33-322x484made him a desirable person to work with.

Over all, Cobley’s talk was very interesting and opened me up to many tricks I could use in my own work to get some great results. it was great to hear something from someone who is working in the commercial genre to see how it works when you get past studying. As a former student of this college it was interesting to see his progress from student to business and this inspired me to look into where I want to be in the future.

Posted in Contextual Studies

Representation in Advertising and the Media

Conceptual photography is something that generates meaning and is used a lot within advertising and media. There are many things used within conceptual advertising, however, that is highly argued and complained about, things such as sexism, ageism, exploitation, false representation and many more.

The media and advertising is used to shape the lives of people as well as selling a product. For example, children are highly manipulated by the media, with young girls thinking that everything is about the body and physical appearance. This is due to the “model” and “Barbie” look that is promoted often in the media. The women body sells in advertising so is often exploited to grab the attention of the audience.

nvdklsnvSexism isn’t just within the advertising, but behind the scenes only 3% of women have a high job role in media and only 16% are writers, showing the media to be dominated by men. This could explain why women are so highly exploited in the media. Adverts use violence and derogatory actions towards women which could influence domestic violence against women. One vogue magazine cover projects this idea, with the man grabbing the woman’s neck. If he had positioned his hand a little more downwards towards her shoulders it wouldn’t have projected such strong connotations. The posture of the woman shows a slight uncomfortable feeling which enhances this idea further. The pose on the man’s face is almost seductive which can also add connotations of sexual abuse.

“The Representation Project” is a charity that tries to equalise the genders. One video – thefhucdbsc mask you live in – shows the sexualisation and misinterpretation of men, showing that it isn’t always women being exploited. It explains how boys can’t show emotion as it is seen as being not masculine enough. It shows how the pain and anger of the boys bottles up because of this and essentially causes them to lash out. The problem is that they try to follow the same postures as each other to prove to be a man following the large amount of pressure to do this.

downloadThere is also a lot of dominant and submissive in advertsing. Women are sexualised and made to look weaker, whereas men look smart and more dominant. There are three main ways of showing this: through occupation, for example showing a man doing intelligent jobs such as doctors or strong jobs like firemen, and women doing motherly and more rolling-stone-1domestic jobs like cleaners; domestic, showing a woman being the perfect housewife and mother; and appearance, showing a muscular chiselled man against a dainty small female. Magazines such as GQ and Rolling Stones show these ideas regularly, often showing the woman in a sexualised, minimal clothed nature and the male in a suit with a powerful posture and pose. This shows the different ways the genders are used to sell a product but also a lifestyle, linking back to the idea of how young girls are manipulated to think everything is about looks.

There was a large uproar about Christmas shopping ads during
2014, as they showed the build up to Christmas being largely organised by the woman of the family. The companies received many complaints as to why the male was involved in the advertising, so the next year the same concept was used but with the male instead. This, however, could be argued as being petty due to the fact that realistically it IS the female doing most of the work at Christmas but because the idea is stereotypically true, it is frowned upon to use within the media.

Children stereotypes are also heavily seen within advertising.gender-ad-42 The most common way of showing this is using pink for girls and blue for boys. The sexism between the two genders is also shown within children’s toys – girls toys are often very traditional, with toy kitchens and cleaning appliances. There is also a large amount of toys such as “vanity tables” which enhances the idea of beauty and popularity. Dolls and baby dolls also promote the idea of a woman being a motherly figure and staying at home, showing how these ideas are projected to young girls from a very young age. Similarly, boys toys encourage attitudes of speed, power, strength and destruction, with things like cars, building tools, and competitive games. They are also shown to dolls in the form of action figures, which also have the muscular and chiseled structure of the stereotypical man.

A lot of sexism is also seen by the words used within advertising which creates a sense of which gender the advert is aimed at. Bold, angry and powerful words often represent adverts aimed at males, whilst softer, more playful words oftenUntitled hvvcsappeal to females.

Sexism is being drowned out in more modern advertising by the introduction of androgyny, pan-sexual and liquid gender advertising, which essentially equalises the genders and still sells the product or service.

However, some people believe these to be ideas that people jump on to be classified as part of a certain community. I believe ideas like this are based on personal interpretation rather than the advertising of that particular look. But even these ideas are being tumblr_l1hqmbCdd91qaz6u3o1_500penalised in advertising. One of Paddy Powers adverts asked viewers to guess if the race ladies were ‘stallions or mares’, showing discrimination of the transgender society. The ad showed a series of brief shots of people at the event while the narrator attempted to guess their gender. In one scene a woman was shown holding a dog while the narrator stated ‘woman’ then hesitated while the shot changed to show a woman walking out of a men’s toilet and stated ‘dog, I mean man’. This created a high level of controversy and was banned from the tv.article-2145175-131D716B000005DC-509_634x386

Racial representation is also a large problem within advertising. Dolce and Gabana showed black figurine earrings with a tribal dress on a catwalk which was largely complained about to be racist.blackamoor-earrings-dolce-gabbana-16x9 I think this is also a matter of interpretation as you could see this as trying to interlink cultures and show influence from cultures in fashion. But the negative connotations of this is that fashion within cultures can be shared more appropriately and not so boldly. The figurine earrings could be seen as similar to a “gollywog” doll, which is a very racist object in modern society.

Similarly, Ashton Kutcher stared in a tv advert for crisps which seen him play different characters. raj-kutcher-articleInline (2)One of the characters was a stereotypical Indian character which was complained about for being derogatory to the Indian culture, which essentially seen the advert get banned. Some people would have watched the advert and seen the humorous side of this character and known that there were no malicious connotations to this. However, with racial discrimination being something so widely frowned on in modern society, people jump on such small things in order to prove a point.

Another racial image in the media was the front cover of Vogue featuring LeBron and Giselle – a basketball player and a model. 17m0vfeehvwsgpngThis image was criticised for the “king kong” stance of LeBron, showing the racism, with the damsel in distress, which is also sexist as the female is made to look weak. The racial dispute is that LeBron looked like a “wild savage”, which essentially goes back in history to the idea of evolution and slavery etc. However, other people would see this image and say that as a basketball player, LeBron is used to being in the knee-bent posture with the angry face which is seen on the playing field, whilst Giselle is smiling showing no sense of fear.

Race leads to culture and culture appropriation is also something within media. Fashion jckslavcbrand ASOS put bindis on their website in the Halloween section which immediately gives connotations of the indian culture almost being evil which isn’t helped by the events going on in the world with terrorism, enhancing the idea of fear and evil.

Religious appropriation is also considered. Federici ice cream made an ad showing two gay priests and a pregnant nun. This was seen as derogatory to the Christian religion ice-cream-ads_1715099ias being homosexual is not “accepted by GOD” and a nun is pure and a virgin. This is almost mocking these ideas so was widely criticised.
However, the product was still selling which makes you question if it is actually a bad idea to use such controversial ideas within the media as it could go either way – it’s a risk that some are willing to take.

Ageism is another characteristic shown in advertising and media. Anti-aging products are one of the most controversial adverts of all within this subject. These adverts use p words such as “fight”, “reveal” and “battle” which essentially shows aging something that you don’t want to happen and can make you look terrible, when actually growing old is natural and should be embraced. The vocabulary also promotes the product by giving the audience false feelings that with these creams they can become younger. The model in these adverts is most commonly a younger looking woman, which can also be seen as false advertising as the product is being used on a person who doesn’t even have wrinkles in the first place. Another advert that was controversial was that by Norwich Union aaavivawhich stated that “worry lines should be a sign of your age, not your investments”. This is false as lines are shown as a part of growing old and not necessarily about being worried or any other type of feeling. Again it is a natural thing that happens to everyone, and this advert tries to promote wrinkling as something that happens due to your lifestyle which is untrue.

Taco Bell produced an advert in 2013 that showed old people breaking the law, partying and having tattoos. This was very controversial and was very mixed on opinion by the audience. Some people thought that the advert was trying to promote these actions as tacobell_crop_northadmirable when done by older people and that actually elderly people should be portrayed as wise and responsible. They also said that it was almost mocking the elderly generation rather than celebrating them. Others said that the advert showed how you’re never too old to live life to the fullest and it helped to encourage people to get out there and embrace life. They also said that it inspired them to want to be like that when they get older. I think it’s a case of interpretation and your original opinion on the subject – example if you think old people are boring and don’t do anything, this could make you see the other side of them that you least expected and make you more open minded.

Another ageist advert was one by Spar. It stated that the husband has lost his winevifdknsv gums and the wife couldn’t find her wool – both very stereotypical things for older people. It suggested that a trip to spar would sort their issue out. The image of the elderly couple is also very stereotypical which essentially gives them a disrespectful connotation by taring everyone with the same brush.

Another derogatory advert was one by Sports Direct, where a dump-the-old-bag_sports-direct-ad_peman walks up to an airport desk with an older looking woman on his arm, to which the air hostess says “throw away that old bag”. Although this was intended to be humorous, it has connotations of disrespect towards relationships with age gaps and older people.

However in some cases, age is used in a positive way. In a aasamsungSamsung washing machine advert, an older, grey haired woman is shown to be happy in her modern clothes. Her stance is very confident, modern and energetic which gives the elderly generation a more positive connotation similar to the younger generations of today.

In conclusion, I think overall, interpretation and existing knowledge is key – if you are sensitive to these ideas you will automatically use your negative eye to depict the bad things about the advert. At the end of the day an advert is used to essentially sell a product or service and sometimes controversy helps to do this. whether it’s right or wrong, its grabbing the attention of the audience which is what that advert is aimed to do.